It seemed, based upon claims in chapter 2 of *Dark Mission: The Secret History of NASA*, that today’s so-called “Maxwell equations” were a “dumbed down” version of the original equations of James Clerk Maxwell. This, if true, had tremendous implications. (Background: Our Friend, The Ether (Part 19), Ersjdamoo’s Blog entry of November 16, 2013.)

Corroboration of the claim that Maxwell’s equations had been “Heavisided” has been found in several places:

- “Maxwell’s” vector equations taught in university are actually Oliver Heaviside’s truncated equations, and are only a simplified version of what Maxwell originally wrote. [1]
- “The 20 equations originally presented by Clerk Maxwell were altered and reduced to four equations by Oliver Heaviside. This may sound conspiratorial to some alternative science buffs…” [2]
- “In truth the four equations traditionally included in the teaching of physics are more aptly named the ‘Maxwell-Heaviside Equations’ inasmuch as Oliver Heaviside reformulated Maxwell’s original equations from a quaternion format into a simple vector format. Maxwell’s original paper consisted of 20 equations with 20 unknowns.” [3]

“Quaternion” is from discoveries first described by Irish mathematician William Rowan Hamilton in 1843. On October 16, 1843, Hamilton was out walking with his wife when the solution suddenly dawned on him. Hamilton immediately stopped and carved the formula for the quaternions into a stone bridge he had been passing. The next day Hamilton wrote a letter to a friend: “And here there dawned on me the notion that we must admit, in some sense, a fourth dimension of space for the purpose of calculating with triples…” [4]

Maxwell’s original quaternion format equations were changed, after his death, into “a simple vector format”, by Oliver Heaviside (image above, at top), a Unitarian who sneered at the idea of a supreme being. Vector calculus was developed from quaternion analysis by J. Willard Gibbs and Oliver Heaviside near the end of the 19th century. In the conventional form using cross products, vector calculus does not generalize to higher dimensions. [5]

For Oliver Heaviside, Maxwell’s use of quaternions and their description of the “potentials” of space was “mystical, and should be murdered from the theory.” [6] From what I can gather, when Heaviside converted Maxwell’s quaternion format equations to a simple vector format he essentially robbed the original equations of their fourth-dimensional aspect.

So, was James Clerk Maxwell “mystical”? It is known that he dabbled in poetry. Here are some lines from one of Maxwell’s suspicioned mystical poems:

Ye cubic surfaces!

By threes and nines,

Draw round his camp your seven-and-twenty lines –

The Seal of Solomon in three dimensions… [6]

What did Maxwell mean by “the Seal of Solomon in three dimensions”? This is said to be an overt reference to the geometrical and mathematical underpinnings of “circumscribed tetrahedral geometry.” Take the base of a tetrahedron (an equilateral triangle). Add a second equilateral triangle exactly opposite the first. Circumscribe the figure with a circle and you obtain the “Seal of Solomon.” If you attempted to draw this “Seal of Solomon” in three dimensions, this would give you a representation of a double-star tetrahedron circumscribed by a sphere. [6]

The authors of *Dark Mission* show (their figure 2-3) how Maxwell’s reference in his poem to the “seven-and-twenty lines” implies a two-dimensional sketch of a double-star tetrahedron encompassed by a “hypercube.” [6]

——- Sources ——-

[1] http://www.cheniere.org/references/maxwell.htm

[2] http://www.james-clerk-maxwell.com/joomla/

[3] http://www.halexandria.org/dward760.htm

[4] “Quaternion”, Wikipedia, November 17, 2013

[5] “Vector calculus”, Wikipedia, November 17, 2013

[6] *Dark Mission: The Secret History of NASA*, by Richard C. Hoagland and Mike Bara. Los Angeles: Feral House, 2007

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