From the suppressed dossier of Nikolay Sokolov, White Army investigator, British journalists Anthony Summers and Tom Mangold discovered how Empress Alexandra Feodorovna and her four daughters were reliably reported alive in Perm, months after the supposed “mass murder in the cellar” of July 16-17, 1918. 
Perm is a city 180 miles northwest of Ekaterinburg. Perm was held by the Bolsheviks until December 24, 1918. One witness, Yevgeniya Sokolova, told White Army investigators that concurrent with the fall of Perm, the Reds evacuated Alexandra and three of her daughters to Glazov, then Kazov, then Moscow. 
Who was the missing daughter, not evacuated with Alexandra and the others?
While in Perm, Tatiana Nikolaevna, second oldest daughter of Tsar Nicholas II, had been the first to make an escape attempt. She was captured, and the remaining members of the Russian imperial family were transferred to the basement of the Berezin house, a more secure prison for them. 
Next, Anastasia escaped. Some say she died in the attempt. Some say she was captured, brutally beaten, and possibly raped. Yevgeniya Sokolova, the witness interviewed in 1919, believed Anastasia had died after her escape attempt. But maybe Anastasia didn’t die. After she had supposedly been captured, elite Bolshevik troops combed the woods outside Perm. The local Perm residents were forbidden to enter the woods. Crack troops were diverted for three to four days, when they were sorely needed elsewhere, to search the forest carefully. “Furthermore, trains were being stopped in a serious attempt to catch the runaway.” 
At this point we pick up the story from Peter Kurth, one of the biographers of Anna Anderson, who claimed she was the surviving Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna. Somewhere outside Perm, the injured Anastasia was helped by Alexander Tschaikovsky, impoverished scion of a noble Polish family. Hidden by day in a small wagon, the two journeyed slowly to Bucharest, Romania. There, Anastasia gave birth to a boy. She later said the father had been Alexander Tschaikovsky, but I suspect Bolshevik guards had raped Anastasia and that the “marriage to Tschaikovsky” was just a cover story. In those days, unfortunately, a woman who had been raped was thought to be at least partly to blame. So Anastasia would have been ashamed of this and would have invented a marriage which never happened. After the child, a boy, was born in Bucharest, Anastasia gave it away and continued journeying to Berlin, Germany. 
What was in Berlin? Anastasia hoped to be reunited with relatives of her mother Alexandra, who was German. Perhaps her Aunt Irene would help Anastasia. But when she came near the palace, poorly dressed and undernourished, Anastasia suddenly realized, “What do I do? Just knock on the door?” A butler would answer the knock and see a female vagabond demanding to meet with Princess Irene. At that point, Anastasia realized how hopeless her situation was. She became thoroughly depressed and jumped into the Landwehr Canal. 
Fortunately, Anastasia was rescued by a policeman. Wrapped in a blanket and shivering in the February cold, she heard questions shouted at her: Didn’t she know it was illegal to commit suicide in Germany? And who was she anyway? Where were her identity papers? Come on you, talk! 
But if she talked, they would surely detect a Russian accent. No papers, speaks with a Russian accent… Times were hard in Germany in 1920. The war had been lost and Russian refugees filled Berlin. Maybe the authorities would decide to send Anastasia back to Russia, into the waiting arms of the Bolsheviks from whom she had so perilously escaped! So Anastasia decided to just shut her mouth and not say anything. 
She was called “Miss Unknown” and placed in a mental hospital. There, doctors examined her. It was found that Miss Unknown was not a virgin. Slowly, over the course of many months, clues to who she might be appeared. 
A few years passed. In 1925 Miss Unknown (later called Anna Anderson) was admitted to St. Mary’s Hospital in Berlin. There was a tubercular infection in her left arm and incipient breastbone tuberculosis. A Dr. Josef Knapp had earlier examined Anna/Anastasia. He noticed “two distinct deepenings in the parietal bones of [the] cranium.” One of these corresponded to the portion of the brain adjacent to the fissure of Sylvius, connected with understanding words. 
The tubercular infections on the left arm and chest were thought by doctors to have possibly originated from stab wounds. A memory disturbance may have been linked to some of Anastasia’s injuries, thought the doctors. 
A psychoanalyst, Professor Karl Bonhoeffer, examined her. He could not rule out severe organic disturbance of the memory due to brain concussion. When Dr. Bonhoeffer examined Anna/Anastasia, she could not count past 10 nor could she tell the time. 
It is evident that besides being malnourished and poorly dressed, the Miss Unknown who emerged from the Berlin canal in 1920 also suffered the effects of brain trauma. So there Anastasia was in the mental hospital in 1920, with her identity gone, afraid of being sent back to Russia, and with organic mental confusion besides. In walks Baroness Sophie Karlovna Buxhoeveden, former maid of honor to Anastasia’s mother. The Baroness had had to travel to Berlin and seemed to be in a hurry. “No one ever found out what went on in the ward during the several minutes of Baroness Buxhoeveden’s first visit to Fraülein Unbekannt [Miss Unknown].”  But let us imagine the scene:
(Enter Baroness. She marches up to Anastasia’s bed amongst the others in the disturbed ward. She has not been announced.) Tapping her foot rapidly, the Baroness sharply says to the bewildered Anastasia, “The clock is ticking, so let’s hear it. They have persuaded me, against my wishes, to come here. I don’t have much time.”
Anastasia, astonished, gropes through her traumatized mental faculties for a clue as to who this strange woman might be. She stares and says nothing.
(Baroness, increasingly impatient) “Cat got your tongue, eh? Is that it? Well my fine little Miss, you had better talk and make it quick!”
At this point, Anastasia wonders if this is some escaped lunatic from one of the other wards. So she answers the demand of the Baroness by pulling a blanket over her head!
Seeing this person now insulting the presence of the Baroness, she turns and walks out of the ward. “How dare she hide herself under a blanket after all the trouble I have taken,” fumes Baroness Buxhoeveden.
——- Sources ——-
 The File On the Tsar, by Anthony Summers and Tom Mangold. New York: Harper & Row, 1976
 Anastasia: The Riddle of Anna Anderson, by Peter Kurth. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1986