A parallel civil war took place concurrent with the American Civil War of 1861 – 1865. Besides North versus South there was Greenback versus Pseudo-Greenback.
Why does this matter? It matters because Pseudo-Greenback won and now resides at the “Federal Reserve”, a pseudo-federal entity.
The National Bank Act was passed by Congress on February 25, 1863. Amendments to that Act were passed in 1864. The National Bank Act disguised a privately-owned central bank behind a mask of many “national” banks controlled from a single location. The new national bank currency was made to so closely resemble physically the Greenback (money owned by the people of the United States and overseen by Congress, as the U.S. Constitution intends) that few would notice the difference. The national bank Pseudo-Greenback competed with the Greenback. (Background: Evil Doings of the Salmon, Ersjdamoo’s Blog, July 31, 2015.)
Sarah E. Van De Vort Emery (image) had as her chief target Senator John Sherman. John Sherman was considered to be “a trickster by habit and birth” who had been “on all sides of the financial question.” Ms. Emery called Senator John Sherman the “head devil.” 
John Sherman, readers of this blog may recall, was a Republican Senator from Ohio during the Civil War. As a senator, he was a leader in financial matters, helping to redesign the United States’ monetary system. In a June 25, 1863 letter from the Rothschild Brothers, they informed Messrs. Ikleheimer, Morton and Vandergould that John Sherman has advised them not to fear: few will be able to understand the financial hocus-pocus of the National Bank Act. (See Evil Doings of the Salmon, Ersjdamoo’s Blog, July 31, 2015.)
Who was Sarah E. Van De Vort Emery? Mainstream historians have presented her as the purveyor of a “conspiracy theory” about seven pieces of financial legislation.  Ms. Emery wrote a book, published circa 1892: Seven Financial Conspiracies Which Have Enslaved the American People. A “Google Books” search will find her book listed, but it is “no preview”, “no snippet view”, no nothing – even though the copyright must have expired by now.
An Amazon Kindle edition preview of Seven Financial Conspiracies Which Have Enslaved the American People begins with a quote from the purported Hazard Circular: “The great debt that capitalists will see to it is made out of the war, must be used as a measure to control the volume of money.” (The Hazard Circular is said to have been secretly distributed to wealthy private investors circa 1862.)
The Pseudo-Greenback forces planned, through the misfortune of the Civil War, to enrich and aggrandize themselves. “But the great leader, Lincoln, was not to be baffled; he loved the people better than Shylock, and justice better than oppression. From the constitution he read, ‘Congress shall have power to coin money.'” 
Enactments of July 17, 1861 and February 12, 1862 authorized “the issue of $60,000,000 treasury notes, not bearing interest payable for all debts, public and private” which were the first issue of Greenbacks. 
It was civil war! Yet it was not between the North and the South but between the Greenback and the Pseudo-Greenback. Which would prevail?
Had not Abraham Lincoln been assassinated on April 14, 1865, the Greenback might have won. A book first published in 1935, Lincoln: Money Martyred, goes so far as to say the motive for the assassination was the battle between the Greenback and the Pseudo-Greenback. “Federal Reserve” killed Abraham Lincoln! However I myself believe the true motive for the assassination was a conflict within the then-fledgling Republican Party between Radical and Moderate Republicans. For this reason I find it disturbing that revisionist “history” promulgated in the Steven Spielberg “Lincoln” movie tries to turn the easygoing Lincoln into a fervent Radical Republican zealot. (Background: Addenda to the Addenda, Ersjdamoo’s Blog, July 14, 2015.)
On April 12, 1866, the Contraction Act authorized the Treasury Secretary to issue 5 percent 20-year bonds and with the proceeds “retire” Greenbacks, i.e., cremate or burn them. 
On April 12th, 1866 the American Congress passed the Contraction Act, allowing the treasury to call in and retire some of Lincoln’s Greenbacks. 
The Pseudo-Greenback had won the parallel civil war. The womb of America had been impregnated and later, in 1913, the ghastly creature “Federal Reserve” poked its bulbous head from between the gaping thighs of Mama National Bank. But is this creature Constitutional? The U.S. Congress (not a privately-owned “Federal Reserve”) shall have power to coin money and regulate the value thereof. (U.S. Constitution, Article I, Section 8.)
——- Sources ——-
 A Populist Assault: Sarah E. Van De Vort Emery on American Democracy, 1862 – 1895, by Pauline Adams, Emma S. Thornton. Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1982.
 Amazon Kindle edition preview of Seven Financial Conspiracies Which Have Enslaved the American People, by Sarah E. Van De Vort Emery.
 Lincoln: Money Martyred, by Dr. R.E. Search (pseudonym). Palmdale, CA: Omni Publications, first published in 1935.
 “History of Banking, 1866 – America Starts Its Contractions”, http://www.mindcontagion.org/banking/hb1866.html